24-11-2020

भाकृअनुप - भारतीय मक्का अनुसंधान संस्थान

ICAR - Indian Institute of Maize Research

(ISO 9001:2015 certified)

Nurturing Diversity, Resilience, Livelihood & Industrial Inputs

IDM for important diseases of maize

1. Maydis leaf blight (MLB)/ Southern Corn Leaf Blight (SCLB)

Causal organism: Biopolaris maydis

  • Destroy infected crop residue from the field
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids
  • Foliar spray of Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/ L of water after about 15 days after sowing is effective and provide two more sprays at 10-day intervals or immediately after symptoms appearance.
  • Foliar spray of Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/ L of water after about 30-35 days after sowing is effective and provide two more sprays at 10-day intervals or immediately after symptoms appearance if needed.
  • Foliar spray Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenconazole 11.4% w/w SC  1ml/L of water immediately after symptoms appearance

2. Turcicum leaf blight (TLB)/ Northern Corn Leaf Blight (NCLB)

Causal organism: Exserohilum turcicum

  • Crop rotation with a non host crop like legumes to reduce the disease severity of Turcicum leaf blight by providing the time for infected residue to break down and to prevent disease development in the subsequent corn crop by reducing the overwintering fungus.
  • Destruction of crop debris.
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids
  • Seed treatment with Azospririllum (ACD 15 or ACD 20 Stran) @ 25 g and Trichoderma @ 6g per kg seeds or Thiram 75 WP @ 2 g or Capatn 50 WP @ 2 g per kg of seeds before sowing.
  • Spray 2.5g Mancozeb 75 WP or 1 ml Hexaconazole 5 EC or 1 ml combiproduct fungicide Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenconazole 11.4% per liter of water immediately after appearance of the disease symptoms. Repeat the same after 15 days which helps to manage Curvularia leaf spot also.
  • Two sprays of Mancozeb spray (2-3gm/litre) has to be taken at 15 days interval immediately after disease appearance.

3. Curvularia leaf spot

Causal organism: Curvularia lunata

  • The weeds in and around the field should be removed to make the crop safe from air borne infection.
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids.
  • Seed Treatment with 20 g Trichoderma chalk formulation + Mancozeb 63% or Thiram 40 F.S. @ 6 g/kg seed.
  • Foliar Spray: – It should be done at 35 and 55 DAS using Carbendazim 12%+ Mancozeb 62% or Zineb 75% @ 2 g/lit of solution.

4. Banded leaf and sheath blight

Causal organism: Rhizoctonia solani

  • Stripping of lower leaves along with their sheath
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids
  • Foliar spray Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenconazole 11.4% w/w SC (Amistar Top 325 SC) 1ml/L of water at 50 DAS or immediately after symptoms appearance. If needed, repeat the spray at 15 days interval

5. Charcoal rot

Causal organism: Macrophomina phaseolina

  • Adopt crop rotation
  • Deep summer ploughing
  • Field sanitation
  • Avoid the water stress condition at the time of flowering
  • If stalk rot present, early harvesting reduces ear loss.
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids
  • Seed treatment with 25g PSB (Pseudomonas striata H-21) and 6 g Trichoderma harzianum or 5 ml Thiram Flo 40 FS per kg seeds before sowing.

6. Fusarium stalk rot

Causal organism: Fusarium verticillioides

  • Field sanitation destruction of previous crop debris completely and deep ploughing
  • Adopt crop rotation
  • Apply balanced dose of fertilizers (Low dose of Nitrogen and high dose of potassium
  • If stalk rot present, harvesting early reduces ear loss.
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids

7. Bacterial stalk rot

Causal organism: Dickeya zeae

  • Destroy the diseased plant debris
  • Maintain the adequate drainage
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids
  • Drenching of bleaching powder Ca (ClO)2 with 1.5g /15 l of water immediately after symptoms appear

8. Common rust

Causal organism: Puccinia sorghi

  • Residue management through sanitation, tillage and crop rotation
  • Ploughing down of crop debris may reduce early infection
  • Spray of fungicide Dithane M-45 applications @ 2.5-4 g/L of water at first appearance of pustules. If disease is severe three sprays at 15 days interval are recommended

9. Polysora rust:

Causal organism: Puccinia polysora

  • Early Planting
  • Use crop rotation
  • Destruction of crop debris
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids
  • Two sprays of Mancozeb (2-3gm/ litre) has to be taken at 15 days interval immediately after symptoms appearance (pustules)

10. Rajasthan downy mildew

Causal organism: Pernosclespora heteropogoni

  • Destruction and burning of infected plants
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids
  • Seed treatment with Apron 35 SD @ 4 g/Kg seed
  • Foliar spray of Metalaxyl + Mancozeb (0.1%) 20-25 days after sowing

11. Sorghum downy mildew

Causal Organism: Pernosclespora sorghi

  • Plant early and avoid staggered planting
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids
  • Treat seeds with Metalaxyl + Mancozeb (WS) at the rate 3.0 g/kg seeds.
  • Foliar spray Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenconazole 11.4% w/w SC  (0.1%) after 20 days of sowing

12. Non-Insect Pest- Maize cyst nematode

Causal Organism: Heterodera zeae

  • Crop rotation: apply crop rotation with non-cereal crops like soyabean, cotton and vegetables
  • Deep summer ploughing: Two to three times deep summer ploughing in the month of April and May at 10 to 15 days interval
  • Intercropping of maize with sesamum (2:2 rows at 30 cm apart) for the management of maize cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae on maize followed by Maize + soybean and Maize + cluster bean
  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids