27-10-2020

भाकृअनुप - भारतीय मक्का अनुसंधान संस्थान

ICAR - Indian Institute of Maize Research

(ISO 9001:2015 certified)

Nurturing Diversity, Resilience, Livelihood & Industrial Inputs

Telangana

State-wise major pest & diseases and their control measures -Telanagana

S.No. Pest / Diseases Control measures
1 Stem borer (Chilo partellus & Sesamia inferens) Management of Stem borers Farm sanitation: Removal of infested plants, ploughing the field soon after harvest and collection and burning of stubbles to kill the hibernating larvae and pupae.Growing stem borer tolerant hybrids (DHM 117).Adjusting the sowing time to avoid peak activity of the borers to coincide with critical stage of the plant (10-12 days old).Maintaining optimum plant density in the field (33,000 plants/ac).Intercropping with legumes such as cowpea, soybean, redgram and green gram in 2:1 ratio encourages the buildup of natural enemy population.Trap crop: Sorghum is the preferred host for C. partellus. Sowing 2-3 rows of trap crop on all sides of maize and uprooting it after 45 days.Clipping of lower leaves of maize on which most of the eggs are laid.Crop rotation with non-host crops destroys the buildup of pest due to non-availability of host.Release of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis @ 8 cards per ha twice i.e., at 12 and 22 days after germination.Cotesia flavipes is the dominant and most widely distributed larval parasitoid.Use of recommended dose of fertilizers, avoiding excessive use of nitrogen that increases pest attack.Prophylactic spray of Monocrotophos 36 SC @ 1.6 ml/1 or Chlorantriniliprole 20 SC @ 0.3 ml/l of water at 10-15 DAG followed by Carbofuran 3G @ 7.5 kg/ha in plant whorls in case of severity.  
2 Fall Army Worm (Spodoptera frugiperda) Integrated pest management: Summer ploughing, Intercropping with redgram/ green gram/ cowpea 2:1 or 4:1 ratio, selection of single cross hybrid, seed treatment Cyantraniliprole 19.8% + Thiomethoxam 19.8% @ 4 ml per kg seed, Erection of pheromone traps @ 4/acre soon after sowing for monitoring, Erection of bird perches @ 15/acre during early stage of the crop, application of balanced fertilizers (NPK @80:24:20), clean cultivation upto 45 days after sowing (DAS). Further, on observation of pest in the field or moth catches in pheromone traps, a window based IPM approach has resulted good control. First window (0 to 30 days old crop, highly venerable stage): Need based application of Neem formulation (Azadiractin, 1500ppm) in whorl @ 5 ml /l of water or release of Telenomus remus or Trichogramma pretiosum @ 50,000/ac at weekly intervals soon after observation of egg masses in the field and Whorl application of Metarhizium @ 5 g/liter of water for control of  early instar larvae (5-10% damage). Need based application of  Emamectin benzoate 5 SG in whorl @ 0.4 g per liter of water for early instar larvae (5-10% damage) and or Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 0.4 ml/l or  Spinetoram 0.5 ml/l of water / Application of Sand + lime (9:1 ratio) in whorl @ 10 kg per acre (damage  >20%). Second window, Mid whorl to late whorl stage (31-65 old crop, venerable stage):  Need based application of above mentioned control methods (1st window) one or two times for management of FAW in 2nd window or Apply poison bait in whorls for the control of grownup larvae with thiodicarb@100 g/ac (10 kg rice bran + 2 kg joggery + 2-3 l of water, after mixing thoroughly keep for fermentation and then mix 100 g of thiodicarb before application). Third window Flowering to grain hardening stage (>65 old crop): Insecticidal spray is not cost effective at this stage, Hand picking and killing of larvae is the best option. Two to three interventions are required during crop growth period (1st & 2nd window) for effective control of Fall Army Worm.  
3 Post Flowering Stalk Rots caused by Cephalosporium maydis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium verticilloids Crop rotation, removing plant debris, summer ploughing, application of balanced K fertilizer, avoiding moisture stress after flowering and growing tolerant hybrids
4 Downy mildews (Pernosclerospora/Sclerophthora) Management: Cultivation  of resistant hybrids Deep  summer ploughing Removal of collateral and wild hosts in and around field Rouging of infected maize plants and burn them Seed treatment with Metalaxyl at 4 g/kg and foliar spray of Metalaxyl  at 2g/l  
5 Erwinia Stalk Rot drenching with bleaching powder @4-5 kg/ac